Generally speaking, many Norwegians emigrated for economic reasons. Only the oldest son would inherit land; younger siblings would be landless – and with that came poverty. So at the very time Norway had too many people, America wanted more to settle the expanse of the Great West (never mind that native Americans were there).
Semmingsen’s book Norway to America tells that Norway’s growing population in the first half of the 1800s put pressure on the country’s resources. Only when the “golden prosperity” of the 1850s gave way to poor crops and falling prices in the sixties, however, was the pressure felt throughout the land. In this economic crisis many adults could not find productive work. Among the poor, the pressure was even greater.
Semmingsen writes, “A pastor in Solor [many Blair, Wis. immigrants came from Solor] reported in the spring of 1870 that well-to-do farmers were feeding thirty to fifty people every day and that small farmers had difficulty getting along because their grain and potatoes had frozen” (104).
At the same time, Norwegians were hearing of the American Homestead Act of 1862, whereby a settler could claim 160 acres for working the land. That must have seemed too good to be true. In fact, the Norwegian newspaper first learning of this opportunity was certain it was false. Surely our ancestors heard this news too, and likely it was the talk of many.
Perhaps these were the motivations that led the Borresons and Estensons to leave Norway about this time. Elias and Kari Borreson departed in 1869; Bertinus Estensen in 1875 with his wife Maria joining him the following year. Three of these four (all but Bertinus) had their roots in inland Norway, a steady source of emigration for a century but especially the years 1865-1884 (cf. Semmingsen’s maps).